ADHD

The computerized presentation of information allows the use of multiple senses, the breakdown of material into smaller pieces, provision of immediate feedback, and the limitation of unnecessary, distracting features (DuPaul & Weyandt, 2006). Several studies show that children and adolescents with ADHD are more attentive to computerized programs or interventions than to traditional instruction methods (Shalev, Tasal & Mevorach, 2007; Farrace-Di Zinno et al., 2001; Carroll & Bain, 1994). They also seem to respond better to interactive instruction than when they serve in more passive roles as listeners or viewers (Shaw & Lewis, 2005; Klingberg et al., 2005).

Shaw, Grayson & Lewis (2005) found students with ADHD performed better and were more engaged by information presented in a game format than by regular computerized instruction. In addition, Farrace-Di Zinno et al. (2001) observed how students with ADHD were more similar to their peers without ADHD with regard to the amount of motor movement and distractibility during computer video game play.

Fister (1999) shows that computer games can be used for primary learning of different subjects rather than just for review and reinforcement. Ota and DuPaul (2002) evaluated the effects of a game-based math software program on the performance of ADHD students. They found increased math performance, decreased off-task and disruptive behavior, and increased active engagement in the computer-based instruction compared to the traditional classroom lesson. Mautone, DuPaul, and Jitendra (2005) found similar math improvements in ADHD students.

Leroux & Levitt‐Perlman (2000) point out that the characteristics of ADHD are remarkably similar to those of creativity. Their study reviews the literature on ADHD traits and gifted and creative behaviors, and discusses the implications for educational interventions.

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